The Armenia's claims on Azerbaijani lands, as well as the Upper Karabakh formed pars of its strategy of the establishment of the Great Armenia. Therefore, Armenia always tried to make use of favorable conditions to achieve their goals. When pro-Armenian M.S.Gorbachyov was elected the head of USSR in 1985, Armenians intensified their activity again.The support and protection of the Soviet government to armed Armenian separatists was coming to light during that period. In order to implement his mean plans connected with the autonomous province of Nagorno Karabakh, Mikhail Gorbachev distanced the most important obstacle - Heydar Aliyev - from the political bureau. After that Armenian academician A.Aganbekyan of Gorbachov's grouping, reported that he had made a proposal to the Soviet leadership concerning the Upper Karabakh and expressed hope that the problem will find its solution in the conditions of democracy and reconstruction.Once underground Armenian Committee for Karabakh and its terrorist organization Krunk (Crane) in the Autonomous District of Upper Karabakh started operating openly and the movement Miatsum movement was formed at that time. This movement was backed by Armenia, Autonomous District of Upper Karabakh, Moscow leadership and the potential of USSR and world Armenians. The events acquired more aggressive form in 1988. The wave of meetings of separatists and Armenian nationalists captured Yerevan and Stepanakert in February.armenianAgression_01_2.jpg
The session of the council of Autonomous Upper Karabakh District appealed to the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan SSR for consideration of the status of the district February 20.This fact testified that Armenians had changed their tactics from that of November 1945.
They managed to create an incorrect view of the world community on Upper Karabakh through intensive propaganda and strong Armenian Diaspora in foreign countries. Therefore, they started to hold propaganda openly.
The leadership of Azerbaijan and its community was unprepared for the new tactics of Armenian separatists and their supporters. The murder of two young Azerbaijanis, wounding of 19 people by Armenian separatists in Askeran February 20, resulted in the preparation of policy against the plans of Armenians. In late February the special service bodies and organs of State Security of SSSR committed a tragedy in the big industrial city of Azerbaijan-Sumgayit.
The causes of Sumgayit tragedy soon came to light. That step targeted Azerbaijanis living in Armenian and was used to part Upper Karabakh from the Soviet Azerbaijan. "4 residents of Mehmandar village of Azerbaijan south to Yerevan were killed on March 10. Over 100 houses were destroyed and residents were evicted from the Azerbaijani villages of Ararat region on March 25. In mid March Armenians again attacked Azerbaijani villages near Yerevan….". The barbarism of Armenians against Azerbaijanis rose again.In period of excavation of Armenian separatists' barbarism the indifference of the Communist party of Soviet Union to the real assessment of the state of the Central Committee and Soviet leadership also became evident. The resolution "On measures for intensification of socioeconomic development of the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1988-1995" was a bid to cover up the separatist nature of the issue. This step inspirited Armenian separatists and even increased their aggression.
The leadership of Azerbaijan, beginning with A.Vezirov, submissive to Moscow, stood on the position of compromises to betrayers and aggressors of its people. Finally, Moscow undertook one more step to part the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh from the Azerbaijan SSR: the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council approved a resolution "On special form of government in the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh" on January 12, 1989.armenianAgression_01_3.jpg
The aim was obvious: The Special Governing Committee, established in the Autonomous Upper Karabakh Province was to provide for the delivery of Upper Karabakh to Armenia. However, as a result of a democratic struggle of Azerbaijani people aware of that, the Special Governing Committee was abolished on November 28. Yet the structure was replaced by a new one-the Organizational Committee. Armenia, making use of it, carried out an anti-constitutional decision on annexation of Upper Karabakh to Armenia on December 1.
That was the open violation of the territorial integrity of the Soviet Azerbaijan. As expected, Moscow shut its eyes to the fact of this violent intervention, thus deteriorating the situation. The leadership of USSR, led by Gorbachov, undertook one more cruel step against Azerbaijan. Baku was chosen the main target. The Soviet Union violating the constitutional responsibilities before the people, bringing large troops, armed with up-date techniques and guns, committed bloodshed in Baku on the night of January 20, 1990.
Armenian soldiers and militants also took an active part in committing the Baku tragedy. However, the tragedy of January 20 could not undermine the control of Azerbaijan it even strengthened the struggle of the people for the independence and territorial integrity. The next day Heydar Aliyev came to the Azerbaijan's representation in Moscow, exposed the criminal actions of Soviet leadership and expressed his support for the justice Salvation struggle of Azerbaijani people. The Supreme Council of the Soviet Azerbaijan declared the restoration of the state independence on August 30, 1991 and approved the Constitutional act on the national independence on October 18.
Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh took advantage of the situation and continued creating political structures. They declared the establishment of a puppet body named The Upper Karabakh Republic in September of 1991. The Azerbaijan Republic did not accept this structure and the status of the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh was abolished on November 26.
The collapse of USSR in late 1991 was followed by the change in the geopolitical situation on post-Soviet area. Armenian in fact declared an open and unfair war against Azerbaijan. Armenian military troops, violating the borders of Azerbaijan, entered Karabakh and conjointly with Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh occupied Azeri lands.
Following the events of February 1988, separatist groups of the Autonomous Daghlig Garabagh Province and Armenian militants launched hostilities for invasion of the Daghlig Garabagh. They were soon joined by the USSR troops stationed in Armenia and Daghlig Garabagh. Thus, the events similar to those after the Tsarist regime break-up in February 1917 occurred following the collapse of USSR. Armenian militants, serving within Soviet Army united against Azerbaijanis and launched military actions from a common front.

They began with the occupation of Azeri settlements in Daghlig Garabagh. The Kerkidjahan village was occupied on January 15, 1992, Malybeyli, Gushchular on February 10, the defenseless inhabitants were killed and injured, while the ring surrounding Khodjaly and Shusha was tightened. Hurriedly, the assembled troops of Azeri volunteers hold an unsuccessful ballet at Dashalty. The united Armenian and Soviet troops occupied the Garadaghly village in mid-April. The most tragic event in the whole modern history occurred on the 26th February night, 1992 when Armenian troops committed a horrible genocide against Azerbaijanis in Hodjaly village.armenianAgression_02_2.jpg

That was the most terrible mass genocide committed by Armenian separatists and Armenian military troops. It can be compared with the fascist bloodsheds during the World War II. The leadership of Azerbaijan which at that time was supporting Moscow instead of defending its own people in the war against the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, was losing its power. As the national liberation movement was gaining its strength, Ayaz Mutalibov's government resigned and this further weakened the defensive capacity of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

As a result Armenian troops occupied Shusha in May 1992, thus invading almost the entire territory of the Daghlig Garabagh. The next step was the occupation of Lachyn, which served as a corridor between Daghlig Garabagh and Armenia. Armenians made use of political instability in Baku and occupied Lachyn as well. The fights for power under the Popular Front regime from May 1992 to June 1993, significantly weakened the defensive capacity of Azerbaijan. In 1993 Armenians captured Kelbedjar. Azerbaijan experienced a deep political crisis in June and in these conditions by demand of the population Heydar Aliyev came to power. Armenia continuing its war with Azerbaijan invaded Aghdam, Fuzuli, Djebrayil and Zengilan between July and October of 1993.

Armenians devastated the occupied lands. 20 thousand Azerbaijanis fell victims of the war, 100 thousand people were wounded, 50 thousand people became invalids. The number of refugees and IDPs exceeds 1 million. According to official sources, 4,852 Azerbaijanis, including 323 women, 54 children and 410 elderly persons were taken hostages. Armenians concealed the real number of hostages from international humanitarian organizations, treated them violently and cruelly, made them work, humiliated and insulted them.

UNO confirmed the fact of occupation of Azeri lands by Armenians and conduction and unfair war against Azerbaijan and its territorial integrity. The UN Security Council ratified four resolutions (No 822, 853, 874, 884) on the Armenia's withdrawal from Azeri lands. Yet Armenians did not follow the resolutions.

Azerbaijan was in need of mobilizing its military-economic and human power in the war against Armenian invaders. For this purpose Heydar Aliyev appealed to the population on radio and TV channels November 2 and serious measures were undertaken. That enabled to radically change the events in Azerbaijani people's struggle against Armenian separatism. The attacks of Armenian troops in direction to Beylagan were rebutted in mid November. As a result of successful operations of Azerbaijan army the strategically important Horadiz district and 22 villages of Fuzuli were released from enemy on January 5, 1994.

After that Azeri troops released part of Djebrayil district, Bozlu, Tekeqaya, Babashlar, Qanlykend, Chepli, Qasymbinesi, Yanshaqbine, Yanshaq, Baghirsaq, Qamyshly settlements. Chichekli mountain and other strategic peaks were returned, Kelbadjar-Lachyn road's section till the tunnel was taken under control. The enemy lost 4 thousand soldiers and militants, 50 armored techniques and 15 artilleries, etc. The achievements of Azerbaijan in making turn in the war and releasing its occupied lands excited nor only in Armenia but also its supporter-countries.

The policy of Armenia's protectors for reinforcement of its military potential, providing it with up-date guns and for turning it to the reactionary force in the region, significantly strengthened. In these conditions Azerbaijan signed the Bishkek protocol on May 8, 1994.

Due to Azerbaijan's progress in fighting its enemy the ceasefire was reached on May 12.